physical inactivity (2023)


  • 1. Introduction
  • 2 Epidemiology
  • 3 sedentary lifestyle
  • 4 environmental factors
  • 5 urbanization
  • first 6 years
  • 7 teenagers
  • 8 seniors
  • 9 adults with disabilities
  • 10 references

introduction[To edit|edit source]

Physical inactivity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), is defined as the inability to accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes of vigorous physical activity, or a combination of both, per week.[1]Globally, physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for mortality, accounting for approximately four to five million preventable deaths.[2]Lack of exercise as a risk factor for non-communicable diseases is only surpassed by smoking, high blood pressure and high body mass index (BMI)[3].

Epidemiology[To edit|edit source]

The latest global estimates show that 1.4 billion adults (27.5% of the world's adult population) are not achieving the recommended level of physical activity to improve and protect their health. Worryingly, this number has remained virtually unchanged since 2001.

(Video) Let’s get moving! - WHO's Global status report on physical activity 2022

Of particular concern are the large disparities in physical activity levels between regions, countries, age groups, and genders. The WHO has identified these differences.

  1. Adults (as of 2016): The inactivity rate in high-income countries (36.8%) is double that in low-income countries (16.2%).
  2. In most countries, women are less active than men, particularly in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas.[1][4]

Insufficiently active, by country

  • Highest in the Americas and the Eastern Mediterranean, where nearly 50% of women in both regions were not active enough.
  • Southeast Asia had the lowest percentage of physical inactivity, 15% for men and 19% for women.
  • In the U.S. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that all US states and territories had more than 15% of adults physically inactive, with an estimated prevalence rate of 17.3% to 47.7%.[5]
  • In a 2019 report from Canada, about 40% of children and adolescents ages 5-17 met recommended physical activity goals, while only 16% of adults ages 18-79 met physical activity goals. recommended physical activity achieved.[6]
  • In the UK, physical inactivity directly contributes to 1 in 6 UK deaths.[3]
  • In Nigeria, the combined crude prevalence of physical inactivity was 52%, with women (55.8%) being more frequent than men (49.3%).[2]
  • In almost all countries, the WHO found that men were more active than women.[7]

The prevalence of physical inactivity in the world forover 18 yearsmiChange 11-17It is described in these images:

physical inactivity (1)

physical inactivity (2)

(Video) Physical Inactivity

The physical, economic and social environments in which modern people sit and move as part of their daily lives have changed rapidly, particularly since the middle of the last century. These changes—in transportation, communication, workplace, and home entertainment technologies—have been linked to significantly lower demand for physical activity.

  • Physical activity clearly leads to an increasephysicistphysical fitness,A practiceReduced capacity and risk of a variety of pathological diseases and clinical disorders, resulting in lower rates of morbidity, all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and increased life expectancy.
  • In particular, physical inactivity increases the risk ofCoronarohrthevascular braintype 2 diseasesDiabetesmellitus, arterial hypertension, various types of cancer (eg, lung, prostate, breast, colon, others),osteoporosis/fracturesmiCraziness, among others.
  • But even with the very old, "not only to continue, but also to begin"physical activityis associated with better survival and function. In addition, because there is a linear relationship between physical activity level and health status, children and adolescents should participate in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity that is fun, includes a variety of activities, and is beneficial for development.[8]

sedentary behavior[To edit|edit source]

physical inactivity (3)

sedentary behavior

sedentary behaviors(from Latin sedere, "to sit") includes sitting on the go, at work and at home, and during leisure time.[9]Common sedentary behaviors include watching television, playing video games, using the computer (collectively referred to as "screen time"), driving, and reading.[10]

There is a difference between a sedentary person and a physically inactive person. Being “physically inactive” means not getting enough physical activity (in other words, not meeting physical activity guidelines). However, being “sedentary” means sitting or lying down for a long time. Thus, a person can be physically active enough to meet the guidelines and still be considered sedentary if they spend much of the day sitting or lying down at work, at home, studying, traveling, or enjoying leisure time.[8]

physical inactivity (4)

(Video) Increasing Physical Activity: Working Towards Wellbeing

Sedentary behaviors, such as watching TV, using a computer, or sitting in a car, are generally in the 1.0 to 1.5 MET (multiples of basal metabolic rate) energy expenditure range.[9]In general, this means that when a person sits or lies down, they are exhibiting sedentary behavior.[10]In contrast, moderate to vigorous physical activity, such as bicycling, swimming, walking, or running, can be performed in a variety of body positions, but requires an energy expenditure of 3 to 8 METs. From this perspective, low-intensity activities are those that are performed standing up but that require an effort of no more than 2.9 METS.[9]

environmental factors[To edit|edit source]

Where we live affects how we live. Sidewalks, protected bike lanes, street designs that reduce traffic and make crossing safe, parks, gyms, shops, and other destinations within walking distance—all of these neighborhood features can make a difference in how active we are. Countless reasons prevent many people from doing this, but the so-called “built environment” or man-made world with its cities and neighborhoods, streets and buildings, parks and paths plays an important role. Our social environment is also important. For example, supportive families and co-workers can make getting up and moving easier.[11]

The multitude of factors that drive adults to start and maintain physical activity programs have been divided into those that are immutable (age, gender, race, ethnicity) and those that are supposed to be modifiable (behavioral and personality traits, environmental conditions, and community). . Idea).[12]

There may be broader adoption of innovative technologies that may provide more opportunities to reduce sitting time (for example, height-adjustable desks), or new workplace regulations to reduce or eliminate long periods of work-related sitting. . Active modes of transport could be promoted not only as ways of walking, but also as an alternative to many people sitting in cars for long periods of time. Offering no-seat alternatives at public entertainment venues or events may also be considered.[9]Our environment and the policies that shape it have a significant impact on where, when, how, and how much we are physically active each day. Just as our lack of physical activity is a major contributor to the obesity epidemic, creating an environment that is conducive to exercise is one way to reverse the epidemic. An activity-friendly environment has many elements: buildings, roads, and communities that encourage walking and bicycling; abundant and attractive parks and playgrounds; and neighborhoods where people feel safe and secure, to name a few.[11]

urbanization[To edit|edit source]

Physical activity behavior is influenced by both individual characteristics and the social environment. Whether or not a person is physically active depends on demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and ethnicity, as well as socioeconomic characteristics such as education and income level.[13]

Increased urbanization has resulted in numerous environmental factors that can discourage people from engaging in physical activity, such as:[7]

  • Violence
  • high traffic density
  • poor air quality, pollution
  • Lack of parks, sidewalks, and sports/recreational facilities

Therefore, urban centers have more roads, cars and car trips and less walking or cycling for transportation or leisure. They have more densely populated neighborhoods and less outdoor recreation space. They pay more attention to the marketing of food and beverages in the media, which can steer people's preferences away from traditional diets. Finally, there are more sedentary occupations (such as manufacturing and office jobs) and fewer active occupations (such as agriculture) in urban centers.[10]

early years[To edit|edit source]

Sedentary behavior can occur in 4 areas of children's lives: education/school/childcare, transportation, self-sufficiency/housework, and leisure/play. For school-age children, the main occupation is "student" and most of the school day is spent sedentary. Homework also provides additional sitting time. Travel time is generally very sedentary, as children sit in buses, trains, and cars to and from school and other destinations. Sedentary personal care tasks include eating and personal hygiene. Fun and leisure session behaviors include reading a book or an electronic screen. There are several ways that sedentary behaviors can affect the health and development of children, including metabolic disturbances, impaired neuromuscular activity, prolonged/awkward postures or repetitive movements, social-emotional experiences, cognitive experiences, and other mechanisms that affect the quality of sleep.[14]

(Video) Physical Inactivity and Chronic Diseases (Jaume Padilla, PhD)

The family can be the breeding ground for a physically active life. Studies show that parents are particularly important as role models, cheerleaders, and promoters of physical activity in children and youth. Your responsibilities include everything from buying sports equipment and transporting the kids to training sessions, to paying fees and giving congratulations. Other important factors in active parenting are parental activity levels and positive reinforcement, mother's involvement, sibling involvement, time spent outdoors, and family income.[11]

Young people[To edit|edit source]

In adolescents, time spent watching television has been associated with substance use, reduced self-esteem and self-concept, reduced bone health, increased risk of markers of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, behavioral poor prosocial, increased aggression, reduced academic performance and depression, and reduced quality of life. Crucially, sedentary behaviors continue from childhood through adolescence and into adulthood. Most indicate that teens should spend no more than 2 hours a day in sedentary screen-based activities, such as watching TV. Policy makers in areas such as health, education and well-being need to be aware of the importance and benefits of reducing inactivity among young people. Effective strategies to reduce the time adolescents spend sedentary include interventions that support active travel and play in schools, families, and communities.[15]

Connections between the built environment and physical activity for children and youth have been documented. Living near parks and other recreational facilities, as well as high aesthetic qualities, are associated with greater physical activity among young people. This can be interpreted to mean that children need suitable places to play close to home. Teens who live in walkable neighborhoods are often more active than their suburban peers. More young people walk or bike to school if they live in walkable neighborhoods. However, children can use the cul-de-sacs as play areas as traffic is light. Therefore, suburban road networks with low connectivity can simultaneously reduce the distance to school and facilitate active leisure activities for young people.[14]

For youth, there is better evidence that sidewalks are associated with higher levels of physical activity. A school campus designed for a variety of activity opportunities can lead to more leisure time activities, e.g. B. after lunch, stimulate. In general, youth appear to benefit from the same built environment factors as adults, but there are additional environments (eg, schools) and activity behaviors (eg, walking or bicycling to school) that should be considered for youth.[14]

older adults[To edit|edit source]

A large proportion of adults in Western cultures are physically inactive, despite decades of warnings about the potentially negative health consequences of a sedentary lifestyle. Successful interventions tailor programs to individual needs, consider personal fitness levels, allow personal control of activity and its results, and provide social support for family, peers, and communities. The initiation and maintenance of regular physical activity in adults depends on a variety of biological and sociocultural variables that require attention throughout life.[12]

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) found that levels of physical activity among American adults decline with age and are lowest among women, ethnic minorities and racial, less educated, low income, and disabled people. and those who live in the southeastern region of the United States.[13]

Adults who live near parks and other recreational facilities generally engage in more recreational and physical activities. This connection has been documented in numerous studies, but it is not possible to quantify the effects due to the large number of methods used. The aesthetics of recreational facilities and of communities in general have been associated with physical activity. Other features of the built environment have not been adequately studied or have provided conflicting results, including the presence and quality of sidewalks, other street features, availability of parking spaces, and hills. There are only a few studies on built environments for adults aged 65 and over. The results generally confirm that the associations of physical activity with walkable community projects and proximity to recreational facilities hold true for older adults in general.[14]

disabled adults[To edit|edit source]

They are adults with serious difficulties walking or climbing stairs; Hear; See; or concentrate, remember, or make decisions. Adults with disabilities are three times more likely to develop heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer than adults without disabilities. Aerobic physical activity can help reduce the impact of these chronic diseases, but nearly half of all adults with disabilities do not engage in recreational aerobic physical activity.[9]

Physicians and other health professionals can play a role in promoting physical activity among their adult patients with disabilities. Adults with disabilities were 82% more likely to be physically active when recommended by their doctor compared to those who did not receive a doctor's recommendation. However, only 44% of adults with disabilities who have seen a doctor in the last year have received a physical activity recommendation from their doctor.[9]

(Video) What happens inside your body when you exercise?

Doctors and other health professionals can use these 5 steps to increase physical activity in adults with disabilities[9]:

  1. Remember that the physical activity guidelines apply to everyone.
  2. Ask about physical activity
  3. Discuss barriers to physical activity
  4. Recommend options for physical activity.
  5. Direct patients to resources and programs.

references[To edit|edit source]

  1. 1,0 1.1 WHO. Physical activity and sedentary behavior guide. Geneva: WHO; 2020. Available at:
  2. 2.0 2.1 World Health Organization. physical activity. Available inísica#tab=tab_2Accessed: 11/16/2021
  3. 3.0 3.1 Atlas of NHS healthcare variations. Health Department. 2015. pp. 94-95. on July 1, 2016).
  4. State of Global Physical Activity Report 2022. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2022. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult physical inactivity prevalence maps by race/ethnicity. January 2020. Available at: on: 11/16/2021
  6. Canadian Survey of Health Measures. Tracking Canadians' Physical Activity, 2016 and 2017. April 2019. Available at: on: 11/16/2021.
  7. 7,0 7.1 World Health Organization. Physical inactivity: a global public health problem. on July 1, 2016).
  8. 8,0 8.1 Ritter JAPhysical Inactivity: Associated Diseases and Disorders.Association of Clinical Scientists. 2012
  9. 9,0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Owen N., Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW.Too Much Sitting: Population Health Science on Sedentary Behavior. Exercise and sport science assessments. 2010
  10. 10,0 10.1 10.2 Sedentary Behavior Research Network.Standardized use of the terms "sedentary" and "sedentary behaviors". Physiol Nutr Metab application. 37:540–542. 2012.
  11. 11,0 11.1 11.2 Harvard TH Chan. Obesity prevention source. Environmental obstacles to the activity. July 2, 2016).
  12. 12,0 12.1 Seefeldt V, Malina RM, Clark MA.Factors Affecting Physical Activity Levels in Adults. Sports medicine. 2002
  13. 13,0 13.1 Transportation Research Council, Institute of Medicine. Does the built environment affect physical activity?Review of the Evidence – Special Report 282. Chapter 6: 4 Contextual Factors Affecting Physical Activity. 2005
  14. 14,0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Leon Straker, Erin Kaye Howie, Dylan Paul Cliff, Melanie T. Davern, Lina Engelen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Jenny Ziviani, Natasha K. Schranz, Tim Olds, Grant Ryan Tomkinson. Australia and other nations fail to meet guidelines for sedentary behavior in children: implications and a way forward.JPAH 13:177 – 188, 2016.
  15. Hancock J, Inchley J, HBSC Physical Activity Focus Group. sedentary behavior. HBSC International Coordination Center. on July 1, 2016).


1. Reducing Physical Inactivity - Animation (Part 1)
(UK Coaching)
2. Physical Activity and Chronic Disease Prevention
3. Physical Inactivity: The Biggest Public Health Problem of the 21st Century
(Creighton University)
4. ⚠️Fighting Against Physical Inactivity⚠️
(Athletics Ireland TV)
5. Reducing Physical Inactivity - Animation (Part 2)
(UK Coaching)
6. The effects of physical inactivity
(Healthy Lifestyle Community)


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